Behavior Modification Principles and Procedures FIFTH EDITION, RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER
Behavior Modification Principles and Procedures

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In this textbook you will learn about behavior modification, the principles and procedures used to understand and change human behavior. Behavior modification procedures come in many forms. Consider the following examples.

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Chapter One Introduction to Behavior Modification 1
Defining Human Behavior 2
Examples of Behavior 4
Defining Behavior Modification 5
Characteristics of Behavior Modification 5
Historical Roots of Behavior Modification 7
Major Figures 7
Early Behavior Modification Researchers 9
Major Publications and Events 9
Areas of Application 10
Developmental Disabilities 10
Mental Illness 11
Education and Special Education 11
Rehabilitation 12
Community Psychology 12
Clinical Psychology 12
Business, Industry, and Human Services 12
Self-Management 13
Child Behavior Management 13
Prevention 13
Sports Performance 13
Health-Related Behaviors 13
Gerontology 14
The Structure of This Textbook 14
Measurement of Behavior and Behavior
Change 14
Basic Principles of Behavior 14
Procedures to Establish New Behaviors 14
Procedures to Increase Desirable Behaviors and
Decrease Undesirable Behaviors 15
Other Behavior Change Procedures 15
Chapter Summary 15
Key Terms 16
Practice Test 16
PART1 Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change
Chapter Two Observing and Recording Behavior 17
Direct and Indirect Assessment 17
Defining the Target Behavior 19
The Logistics of Recording 21
The Observer 21
When and Where to Record 21
Choosing a Recording Method 23
Continuous Recording 23
Percentage of Opportunities 26
Product Recording 27
Interval Recording 27
Time Sample Recording 28
Choosing a Recording Instrument 29
Reactivity 32
Interobserver Agreement 33
vi
Chapter Summary 35
Key Terms 36
Practice Test 36
Applications 37
Misapplications 38
Chapter Three Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change 39
Components of a Graph 40
Graphing Behavioral Data 43
Graphing Data from Different Recording
Procedures 46
Research Designs 47
A-B Design 47
A-B-A-B Reversal Design 48
Multiple-Baseline Design 49
Alternating-Treatments Design 53
Changing-Criterion Design 55
Chapter Summary 57
Key Terms 57
Practice Test 58
Applications 58
Misapplications 59
PART2 Basic Principles
Chapter Four Reinforcement 61
Defining Reinforcement 63
Positive and Negative Reinforcement 66
Social versus Automatic Reinforcement 68
Escape and Avoidance Behaviors 69
Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforces 70
Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of
Reinforcement 72
Immediacy 72
Contingency 72
Motivating Operations 73
Individual Differences 75
Magnitude 75
Schedules of Reinforcement 76
Fixed Ratio 78
Variable Ratio 78
Fixed Interval 79
Variable Interval 80
Reinforcing Different Dimensions of
Behavior 81
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement 82
Chapter Summary 82
Key Terms 83
Practice Test 83
Appendix A 84
Appendix B 85
Chapter Five Extinction 87
Defining Extinction 88
Extinction Burst 90
Spontaneous Recovery 93
Procedural Variations of Extinction 93
A Common Misconception about
Extinction 96
Contents vii
Factors That Influence Extinction 96
Chapter Summary 98
Key Terms 98
Practice Test 99
Appendix A 99
Chapter Six Punishment 101
Defining Punishment 101
A Common Misconception about
Punishment 104
Positive and Negative Punishment 105
Unconditioned and Conditioned
Punishers 110
Contrasting Reinforcement and
Punishment 111
Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of
Punishment 114
Immediacy 114
Contingency 114
Motivating Operations 115
Are these examples of AOs or EOs? 115
Is this an example of an EO or an AO? 115
Individual Differences and Magnitude of the
Punisher 116
Problems with Punishment 117
Emotional Reactions to Punishment 117
Escape and Avoidance 117
Negative Reinforcement for the Use of
Punishment 117
Describe how the use of punishment may be
negatively reinforcing. 118
Punishment and Modeling 118
Ethical Issues 119
Chapter Summary 119
Key Terms 119
Practice Test 120
Appendix A 121
Chapter Seven Stimulus Control: Discrimination and
Generalization 123
Examples of Stimulus Control 124
Defining Stimulus Control 125
Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus
Discrimination Training 126
Discrimination Training in the Laboratory 127
Developing Reading and Spelling with
Discrimination Training 128
Stimulus Discrimination Training and
Punishment 129
The Three-Term Contingency 130
Stimulus Control Research 130
Generalization 132
Examples of Generalization 133
Chapter Summary 137
Key Terms 138
Practice Test 138
Appendix A 138
Chapter Eight Respondent Conditioning 141
Examples of Respondent Conditioning 141
Defining Respondent Conditioning 142
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and
Unconditioned Stimulus 145
viii Contents
Higher-Order Conditioning 146
Conditioned Emotional Responses 147
Extinction of Conditioned Responses 149
Spontaneous Recovery 149
Discrimination and Generalization of
Respondent Behavior 150
Factors That Influence Respondent
Conditioning 150
The Nature of the Unconditioned Stimulus and
Conditioned Stimulus 151
The Temporal Relationship between the
Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned
Stimulus 151
Contingency between the Conditioned Stimulus
and Unconditioned Stimulus 151
The Number of Pairings 151
Previous Exposure to the Conditioned
Stimulus 152
Distinguishing between Operant and
Respondent Conditioning 152
Respondent Conditioning and Behavior
Modification 155
Chapter Summary 156
Key Terms 156
Practice Test 156
PART3 Procedures to Establish New Behavior
Chapter Nine Shaping 159
An Example of Shaping: Teaching a Child to
Talk 159
Defining Shaping 160
Applications of Shaping 162
Getting Mrs. F to Walk Again 162
Getting Mrs. S to Increase the Time between
Bathroom Visits 162
Research on Shaping 164
How to Use Shaping 168
Shaping of Problem Behaviors 170
Chapter Summary 173
Key Terms 174
Practice Test 174
Applications 174
Misapplications 175
Chapter Ten Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control 177
An Example of Prompting and Fading: Teaching
Little Leaguers to Hit the Ball 177
What Is Prompting? 179
What Is Fading? 180
Types of Prompts 182
Response Prompts 182
Stimulus Prompts 184
Transfer of Stimulus Control 185
Prompt Fading 186
Prompt Delay 188
Stimulus Fading 189
How to Use Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus
Control 191
Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control in
Autism Treatment 193
Chapter Summary 193
Key Terms 194
Practice Test 194
Applications 195
Misapplications 195
Contents ix
Chapter Eleven Chaining 197
Examples of Behavioral Chains 197
Analyzing Stimulus–Response Chains 198
Task Analysis 199
Backward Chaining 202
Forward Chaining 205
Total Task Presentation 206
Other Strategies for Teaching Behavioral
Chains 210
Written Task Analysis 210
Picture Prompts 210
Video Modeling 211
Self-Instructions 212
How to Use Chaining Procedures 214
Chapter Summary 215
Key Terms 215
Practice Test 215
Applications 216
Misapplications 216
Chapter Twelve Behavioral Skills Training Procedures 217
Examples of Behavioral Skills Training
Procedures 217
Teaching Marcia to Say“No”to the
Professors 217
Teaching Children to Protect Themselves from
Abduction 218
Components of the Behavioral Skills Training
Procedure 218
Modeling 218
Instructions 221
Rehearsal 222
Feedback 223
Enhancing Generalization after Behavioral Skills
Training 223
In Situ Assessment 224
In Situ Training 225
Behavioral Skills Training and the Three-Term
Contingency 225
Behavioral Skills Training in Groups 226
Applications of Behavioral Skills Training
Procedures 227
How to Use Behavioral Skills Training
Procedures 231
Chapter Summary 233
Key Terms 233
Practice Test 233
Applications 234
Misapplications 234
PART4 Procedures to Increase Desirable Behavior and
Decrease Undesirable Behavior
Chapter Thirteen Understanding Problem Behaviors through
Functional Assessment 237
Examples of Functional Assessment 237
Jacob 237
Anna 239
Defining Functional Assessment 240
Functions of Problem Behaviors 241
Social Positive Reinforcement 241
Social Negative Reinforcement 241
Automatic Positive Reinforcement 242
x Contents
Automatic Negative Reinforcement 242
Functional Assessment Methods 242
Indirect Methods 243
Direct Observation Methods 245
Experimental Methods (Functional
Analysis) 250
Functional Analysis Research 254
Conducting a Functional Assessment 257
Functional Interventions 259
Chapter Summary 260
Key Terms 260
Practice Test 260
Applications 261
Misapplications 263
Chapter Fourteen Applying Extinction 265
The Case of Willy 265
Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem
Behavior 268
Collecting Data to Assess Treatment
Effects 268
Identifying the Reinforcer for the Problem
Behavior through Functional
Assessment 269
Eliminating the Reinforcer after Each Instance of
the Problem Behavior 269
Taking Account of the Schedule of
Reinforcement before Extinction 276
Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors 277
Promoting Generalization and
Maintenance 278
Research Evaluating the Use of Extinction 279
Chapter Summary 282
Key Terms 282
Practice Test 283
Applications 283
Misapplications 284
Appendix A 285
Appendix B 285
Chapter Fifteen Differential Reinforcement 287
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative
Behavior 287
Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive 287
When to Use DRA 289
How to Use DRA 290
Using Differential Negative Reinforcement of
Alternative Behaviors 293
Variations of DRA 295
Research on DRA 296
Differential Reinforcement of Other
Behavior 297
Defining DRO 299
Research Evaluating DRO Procedures 302
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of
Responding 305
Defining DRL 306
Variations of DRL 306
How are DRO and spaced-responding DRL
different? 307
Implementing DRL Procedures 307
Research Evaluating DRL Procedures 309
Chapter Summary 311
Key Terms 312
Practice Test 312
Applications 313
Misapplications 313
Contents xi
Chapter Sixteen Antecedent Control Procedures 315
Examples of Antecedent Control 315
Getting Marianne to Study More 315
Getting Cal to Eat Right 316
Defining Antecedent Control Procedures 317
Presenting the Discriminative Stimulus (S
D
)or
Cues for the Desired Behavior 317
Arranging Establishing Operations for the
Desirable Behavior 319
Decreasing Response Effort for the Desirable
Behavior 320
Removing the Discriminative Stimulus or Cues
for Undesirable Behaviors 322
Presenting Abolishing Operations for Undesirable
Behaviors 323
Increasing the Response Effort for Undesirable
Behaviors 324
Research on Antecedent Control
Strategies 325
Manipulating Discriminative Stimuli 326
Manipulating Response Effort 328
Manipulating Motivating Operations 329
Using Antecedent Control Strategies 334
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the
Desirable Behavior 334
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the
Undesirable Behavior 335
Functional Interventions for Problem
Behaviors 335
Chapter Summary 336
Key Terms 336
Practice Test 336
Applications 337
Misapplications 338
Chapter Seventeen Using Punishment: Time-out and
Response Cost 341
Time-out 342
Types of Time-out 344
Using Reinforcement with Time-out 344
Considerations in Using Time-out 345
Research Evaluating Time-out Procedures 348
Response Cost 350
Defining Response Cost 352
Using Differential Reinforcement with Response
Cost 352
Comparing Response Cost, Time-out, and
Extinction 352
Considerations in Using Response Cost 353
Research Evaluating Response Cost
Procedures 355
Chapter Summary 357
Key Terms 357
Practice Test 357
Applications 358
Misapplications 358
Chapter Eighteen Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics
of Punishment 361
Application of Aversive Activities 361
Overcorrection 363
Contingent Exercise 364
Guided Compliance 366
xii Contents
Physical Restraint 367
Cautions in the Application of Aversive
Activities 368
Application of Aversive Stimulation 368
Positive Punishment: Treatment of Last
Resort 371
Considerations in Using Positive
Punishment 372
The Ethics of Punishment 373
Informed Consent 374
Alternative Treatments 374
Recipient Safety 374
Problem Severity 374
Implementation Guidelines 374
Training and Supervision 375
Peer Review 375
Accountability: Preventing Misuse and
Overuse 375
Chapter Summary 375
Key Terms 376
Practice Test 376
Applications 377
Misapplications 377
Chapter Nineteen Promoting Generalization 379
Examples of Generalization Programming 379
Defining Generalization 380
Strategies for Promoting Generalization of
Behavior Change 381
Reinforcing Occurrences of Generalization 381
Training Skills That Contact Natural
Contingencies of Reinforcement 382
Modifying Contingencies of Reinforcement
and Punishment in the Natural
Environment 383
Incorporating a Variety of Relevant Stimulus
Situations in Training 386
Incorporating Common Stimuli 387
Teaching a Range of Functionally Equivalent
Responses 389
Incorporating Self-Generated Mediators of
Generalization 389
Implementing Strategies to Promote
Generalization 391
Promoting Generalized Reductions in Problem
Behaviors 392
Chapter Summary 394
Key Terms 395
Practice Test 395
Applications 396
Misapplications 396
PART5 Other Behavior Change Procedures
Chapter Twenty Self-Management 399
Examples of Self-Management 399
Getting Murray to Run Regularly 399
Getting Annette to Clean up Her Mess 400
Defining Self-Management Problems 402
Defining Self-Management 404
Types of Self-Management Strategies 404
Goal-Setting and Self-Monitoring 404
Antecedent Manipulations 405
Behavioral Contracting 406
Arranging Reinforcers and Punishers 407
Social Support 408
Self-Instructions and Self-Praise 408
Steps in a Self-Management Plan 409
Clinical Problems 412
Contents xiii
Chapter Summary 413
Key Terms 413
Practice Test 414
Applications 414
Misapplications 415
Chapter Twenty-One Habit Reversal Procedures 417
Examples of Habit Behaviors 417
Defining Habit Behaviors 418
Nervous Habits 418
Motor and Vocal Tics 419
Stuttering 420
Habit Reversal Procedures 420
Applications of Habit Reversal 421
Nervous Habits 421
Motor and Vocal Tics 422
Stuttering 424
Why Do Habit Reversal Procedures Work? 426
Other Treatment Procedures for Habit
Disorders 427
Chapter Summary 428
Key Terms 429
Practice Test 429
Applications 429
Misapplications 430
Chapter Twenty-Two The Token Economy 431
Rehabilitating Sammy 431
Defining a Token Economy 432
Implementing a Token Economy 434
Defining the Target Behaviors 434
Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens 434
Identifying Backup Reinforcers 435
Deciding on the Appropriate Schedule of
Reinforcement 436
Establishing the Token Exchange Rate 437
Establishing the Time and Place for Exchanging
Tokens 437
Deciding Whether to Use Response Cost 438
Staff Training and Management 439
Practical Considerations 439
Applications of a Token Economy 441
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Token
Economy 447
Chapter Summary 447
Key Terms 448
Practice Test 448
Applications 448
Misapplications 449
Chapter Twenty-Three Behavioral Contracts 451
Examples of Behavioral Contracting 451
Getting Steve to Complete His
Dissertation 451
Helping Dan and His Parents Get Along
Better 453
Defining the Behavioral Contract 453
Components of a Behavioral Contract 454
Types of Behavioral Contracts 456
One-Party Contracts 457
Two-Party Contracts 457
Negotiating a Behavioral Contract 459
xiv Contents
Why Do Behavioral Contracts Influence
Behavior? 460
Applications of Behavioral Contracts 461
Chapter Summary 465
Key Terms 465
Practice Test 465
Applications 466
Misapplications 466
Chapter Twenty-Four Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures 469
Examples of Fear and Anxiety Reduction 469
Overcoming Trisha’s Fear of Public
Speaking 469
Overcoming Allison’s Fear of Spiders 470
Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems 471
Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety 474
Relaxation Training 474
Systematic Desensitization 479
In Vivo Desensitization 482
Advantages and Disadvantages of Systematic
and In Vivo Desensitization 484
Other Treatments for Fears 485
Clinical Problems 486
Chapter Summary 486
Key Terms 487
Practice Test 487
Applications 487
Misapplications 488
Chapter Twenty-Five Cognitive Behavior Modification 489
Examples of Cognitive Behavior
Modification 489
Helping Deon Control His Anger 489
Helping Claire Pay Attention in Class 491
Defining Cognitive Behavior Modification 492
Defining Cognitive Behavior 492
Functions of Cognitive Behavior 494
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Procedures 494
Cognitive Restructuring 495
Cognitive Coping Skills Training 499
Acceptance-Based Therapies 501
Clinical Problems 502
Chapter Summary 502
Key Terms 502
Practice Test 503
Applications 503
Misapplications 504

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